Overview

The ActiveDirectory Handler allows a simple, programatic way to interact with an ActiveDirectory instance.

Supported Objects and Actions

ActiveDirectory Objects and Identities

Below is a table of supported active diretory object types, and the supported way to "identify" an object for all actions except for Create. Create (or Modify using upsert) MUST provide the full distinguished name.

Object Type Distinghished Name Name UserPrincipal SamAccountName Sid Guid
User Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Group Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Organizational Unit Yes Yes(1) No No No Yes
Computer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

(1) - Assumes only a single name exists. Since multiple objects are allowed to have the same name under different organizational units, when multiple objects exist with the same name, an error will occur.

Domains

By default, the handler assumes the identity is in the same domian as the server where the handler is running. When specifying an identity in a different domain, a domain qualifier must be pre-pended to the identity, unless already included in the identity itself (Distinguished Name and UserPrincipalName). Below shows examples of every identity type supported in both the "default" domain (SANDBOX) and a different domain (SB2 for this example).

Identity Type Examples
DistinguishedName cn=user002,ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local
cn=user002,ou=myorgunit,dc=sb2,dc=local
Name Joe User
SB2\Joe User
UserPrincipal User003@sandbox.local
User003@sb2.local
SamAccountName User004Sam
SB2\User004Sam
SecurityIdentifier (Sid) S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1704
SB2\S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1720
Guid 2c534dc4-06ba-4dc0-b86c-0eabdeb158f5
SB2\0fe13b30-7500-424e-a7c9-d0d7cc9ecec6

Note : If no domain is explicitly provided, the server domain (where the hander is running) is assumed.

Actions

Below is a list of supported actions that can be performed on ActiveDirectory objects. The action will execute against the objects in a certain order, depending on the action. For example, Organizational Units will be created before users and groups that might be members of that Organizational Unit.

Action Description Order of Operations
Get Retrieves a single ActiveDirectory object by its identity. Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
Create Creates a single ActiveDirectory object by its distinguished name only. (2) Organizational Units
Computers
Groups
Users
Modify Modifies a single ActiveDirectory object by its identity. (2) Organizational Units
Computers
Groups
Users
Delete Deletes a single ActiveDirectory object by its identity Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
Move Moves a single ActiveDirectory object by its identity to another Organizational Unit. Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
AddToGroup Adds Users and/or Groups to an existing ActiveDirecory group by its identity. Users
Groups
Computers
RemoveFromGroup Removes Users and/or Groups from an existing ActiveDirectory group by its identity. Users
Groups
Computers
AddAccessRule Adds Access Rights to an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group) Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
RemoveAccessRule Removes Access Rights from an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group) Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
SetAccessRule Sets Access Rights on an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group), clearing out any existing rights that might exist. Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
PurgeAccessRules Removes All Access Rights to an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group) Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
AddRole Adds a role to an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group) Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
RemoveRole Removes a role from an ActiveDirectory object for a given Principal (User or Group) Users
Groups
Computers
Organizational Units
Search Searches for ActiveDirectory objects based on standard LDAP Filter String syntax Not Applicable
None Used only for assignment of actions to roles in the RoleManager. This can not be used in plan execution. N/A
All Used only for assignment of actions to roles in the RoleManager. This can not be used in plan execution. N/A

(2) - When the "UseUpsert" config is set, calling "Create" on an existing object can be done using its identity. Calling "Modify" on an object that does not exist will only create the object if called using a distinguished name.

Role Manager

The role manager implements an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) to control access to ActiveDirectory objects. The interface provides Role Administration functionality (Adding and Removing roles) as well as answers a very simple question... Does User or Group X have permission to perform action Y on ActiveDirectory object Z?

Handler Config File

The ActiveDirectory Handler takes a configuration file that specifies which RoleManager (if any) should be used as well as any relevant configuration needed by that RoleManager to execute its job. The RoleManager is loaded by the handler at the time of execution. The ActiveDirectory handler loads the config information from the file "Synapse.Handlers.ActiveDirectory.config.yaml" which should be located in the same location as the RoleManager DLL. If no config file is present, or no RoleManager is specified, the "DefaultRoleManager" will be used. Below is the format of the config file:

RoleManager:
  Name: Synapse.ActiveDirectory.MyRoleManager:MyCustomRoleManager
  Config: 
    Custom: Config Structure
    For: The RoleManager Implementation

For more details about which RoleManagers are available and how they work, see the Role Manager page.

Plan Details

Config

The config section of the plan specifies the action to perform against that AD instance, how the action should be run, and what information to return from the call.

Sample

  Handler:
    Type: Synapse.Handlers.ActiveDirectory:ActiveDirectoryHandler
    Config:
      Type: Yaml
      Values:
        Action: Create
        RunSequential: true
        ReturnGroupMembership: false
        ReturnObjects: true
        ReturnObjectProperties: true
        ReturnAccessRules: false
        SuppressOutput: false
        UseUpsert: true
        OutputType: Yaml
        PrettyPrint: true
Element Type/Value Required Description
Action "Get"
"Create"
"Modify"
"Delete"
"AddToGroup"
"RemoveFromGroup"
Yes Specifies the action that will be executed against the active directory instance.
RunSequential boolean No Tells the adapter how to process the objects in the plan. If set to "true", objects will be acted upon in the order they appear in the plan. (Defualt = "false")
ReturnGroupMembership boolean No Tells the adapter to return a list of groups that the User or Group is a member of. (Default = "true")
ReturnObjects boolean No Tells the adapter to return the ActiveDirectory object along with the status of the action. (Default = "true")
ReturnObjectProperties boolean No Tells the adapter to return the raw, DirectoryEntry properties associated with an ActiveDirectory object (Default = "true").
ReturnAccessRules boolean No Tells the adatper to return all the Access Rules associated with the object along with the status of the action (Default = "false")
SuppressOutput boolean No Tells the adapter to not output the ExitData returned from the action into the logs. (Default = "false")
UseUpsert boolean No Tells the adapter to perform a "Modify" action when a "Create" action is called and the object exists, and to perform a "Create" action when a "Modify" action is called and the object does not exist. (Default = "true")
OutputType "Json"
"Xml"
"Yaml"
No Tells the adapter how to format the returned status from the action. (Default = "Json")
PrettyPrint boolean No Tells the adapter whether to indent and add newlines to the returned output. (Default = "true")

Parameters

The parameters section of the plan is simply a list of each type of object you wish to perform the action on. Every object must contain an identity, but depending on the action, other fields might be required. Below are examples of each action and object type with the required fields.


Action: Get and Delete, Object Type: All

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: user1                                            # By Name
      - Identity: cn=user2,ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local        # By Disginguished Name
      - Identity: 2c534dc4-06ba-4dc0-b86c-0eabdeb158f5             # By Guid
      - Identity: user3@sandbox.local                              # By User Principal
      - Identity: user4                                            # By SamAccountName
      - Identity: S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1704   # By Sid
      Groups:
      - Identity: MyGroup001                                       # By Name
      - Identity: cn=MyGroup002,ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local   # By Disginguished Name
      - Identity: 0fe13b30-7500-424e-a7c9-d0d7cc9ecec6             # By Guid
      - Identity: MyGroup003                                       # By SamAccountName
      - Identity: S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1720   # By Sid
      OrganizationalUnits:
      - Identity: MyOrgUnit                                        # By Name
      - Identity: ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local                 # By Distinguished Name
      - Identity: fe00548a-1b8b-490f-8601-7646c290fc8a             # By Guid
      Computers:
      - Identity: computer1                                        # By Name
      - Identity: cn=computer1,ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local    # By Disginguished Name
      - Identity: 2c534dc4-06ba-4dc0-b86c-0eabdeb158f8             # By Guid
      - Identity: computer1@sandbox.local                          # By User Principal
      - Identity: computer1Sam                                     # By SamAccountName
      - Identity: S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1705   # By Sid

For Get and Delete actions, the only field required for every ActiveDirectory object is its identity. The example above shows each object type with every possible way it can be queried or deleted.


Action: AddToGroup and RemoveFromGroup, Object Type: Users, Groups and Computers

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: user1                                            # Any Valid User Identity
        MemberOf:
        - MyGroup001                                               # Any Valid Group Identity
        - cn=MyGroup002,ou=myorgunit,dc=sandbox,dc=local           # Any Valid Group Identity
      Groups:
      - Identity: MyGroup001                                       # Any Valid Group Identity
        MemberOf:
        - S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1720           # Any Valid Group Identity
      Computers:
      - Identity: MyComputer001                                    # Any Valid Computer Identity
        MemberOf:
        - S-1-5-21-4054027134-3251639354-3875066094-1720           # Any Valid Group Identity

For Group Membership actions (AddToGroup and RemoveFromGroup), a "MemberOf" section is added below the Identity of each ActiveDirectory object. The "MemberOf" section is a list of valid group identities that specify which group the "Add" or "Remove" action it to be performed on.


Action: Create or Modify, Object Type: Users

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: cn=mfox,ou=MyOrgUnit,DC=sandbox,DC=local
        Name: Michael Fox            # This will change the "Common Name" of the object.  Use To "Rename" a User.
        Password: bi@02LL49_VWQ{b
        GivenName: Michael
        MiddleName: J
        Surname: Fox
        EmailAddress: mfox@company.com
        VoiceTelephoneNumber: 1-800-555-1212
        EmployeeId: 42
        Enabled: true
        SmartcardLogonRequired: true
        DelegationPermitted: false
        HomeDirectory: C:\Users\user1
        ScriptPath: C:\Users\user1\Scripts
        PasswordNotRequired: true
        PasswordNeverExpires: true
        UserCannotChangePassword: true
        AllowReversiblePasswordEncryption: true
        HomeDrive: F
        AccountExpirationDate: 2017-08-10T16:35:46.0417954Z
        PermittedLogonTimes:
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        - 0
        - 255
        DisplayName : Fox, Michael J
        Description: American Actor, Back to the Future
        UserPrincipalName: mfox@sandbox.local
        SamAccountName: mfox
        Groups:
        - Group001
        - Group002
        - Group003
        Properties:               # See Description Below For Details
          initials:
          - MJF
          otherTelephone:
          - 281-555-1212
          - 832-555-1212
          wWWHomePage:
          - http://www.google.com
          url:
          - http://www.bing.com
          - http://www.yahoo.com
          - http://www.github.com

The named fields are directly mapped to values in the System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal class in .NET. Descriptions can be found in the Microsoft documentation here.

Default Values For Fields

All the fields above are optional with the exception of "Identity" (which must be a Distinguished Name for "Create" actions). Below is a list of fields that will be defaulted to values if not explicitly included on an object creation.

  • UserPrincipalName: Defaults to "Name@Domain" if not provided on Create.
  • SamAccountName: Defaults to "Name" if not provided on Create.

Properties

Values under the "Properties" section are dynamic. Any "attribute" that ActiveDirectory accepts for this type of object can be included here, in a "Key" and "Values" arrangement. Most settable "attributes" for a User can be found on the microsoft site here. The "key" should represent the "Ldap-Display-Name" value of each attribute.


Action: Create or Modify, Object Type: Groups

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Groups:
      - Identity: cn=MyNewGroup,ou=Synapse,DC=sandbox,DC=local
        Name: MyNewerGroup            # This will change the "Common Name" of the object.  Use To "Rename" a Group.
        Scope: Universal     # Local, Global or Universal
        IsSecurityGroup: true
        SamAccountName: MyNewGroupSam
        Description: Some Lame Description
        ManagedBy: mfox      # Can Be Identity of any User or Group
        Properties:
          managedBy:
          - cn=mfox,ou=MyOrgUnit,DC=sandbox,DC=local   # Property Takes Precedence Over Field
          mail:
          - ~null~
          info:
          - Some Random Notes Here

Default Values For Fields

All the fields above are optional with the exception of "Identity" (which must be a Distinguished Name for "Create" actions). Below is a list of fields that will be defaulted to values if not explicitly included on an object creation.

  • SamAccountName: Defaults to "Name" if not provided on Create.

Properties

Values under the "Properties" section are dynamic. Any "attribute" that ActiveDirectory accepts for this type of object can be included here, in a "Key" and "Values" arrangement. Most settable "attributes" for a Group can be found on the microsoft site here. The "key" should represent the "Ldap-Display-Name" value of each attribute.


Action: Create or Modify, Object Type: Organizational Units

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      OrganizationalUnits:
      - Identity: ou=MyOrgUnit,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        Name: MyNewerOrgUnit            # This will change the "Name" of the object.  Use To "Rename" an Organizational Unit.
        Description: Some Lame Description
        ManagedBy: mfox    # Can Be Identity of any User or Group
        Properties:
          managedBy:
          - cn=mfox,ou=MyOrgUnit,DC=sandbox,DC=local    # Property Takes Precedence Over Field
          c:
          - US
          l:
          - ~null~

Properties

Values under the "Properties" section are dynamic. Any "attribute" that ActiveDirectory accepts for this type of object can be included here, in a "Key" and "Values" arrangement. Most settable "attributes" for an Organizational Unit can be found on the microsoft site here. The "key" should represent the "Ldap-Display-Name" value of each attribute.


Action: Create or Modify, Object Type: Computers

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Computers:
      - Identity: cn=MyComputer,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        Name: MyRenamedComputer              # This will change the "Name" of the object.  Use To "Rename" an Organizational Unit.
        Description: Some Lame Description
        ManagedBy: mfox    # Can Be Identity of any User or Group
        Properties:
          managedBy:
          - cn=mfox,ou=MyOrgUnit,DC=sandbox,DC=local    # Property Takes Precedence Over Field
          userAccountControl:
          - 544
          operatingSystem:
          - ~null~

Properties

Values under the "Properties" section are dynamic. Any "attribute" that ActiveDirectory accepts for this type of object can be included here, in a "Key" and "Values" arrangement. Most settable "attributes" for a Computer can be found on the microsoft site here. The "key" should represent the "Ldap-Display-Name" value of each attribute.


Action: AddAccessRule, RemoveAccessRule or SetAccessRule, Object Type: All

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: SomeUser001
        AccessRules:
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Allow
          Rights: Self,GenericRead
          Inheritance: None
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Deny
          Rights: ListChildren
          Inheritance: All
      Groups:
      - Identity: SomeGroup001
        AccessRules:
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Allow
          Rights: Self,GenericRead
          Inheritance: Descendents
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Deny
          Rights: ListChildren
          Inheritance: SelfAndChildren
      OrganizationalUnits:
      - Identity: SomeOrgUnit001
        AccessRules:
        - Identity: MyComputer
          Type: Allow
          Rights: Self,GenericRead
          Inheritance: Children
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Deny
          Rights: ListChildren
      Computers:
      - Identity: SomeComputer001
        AccessRules:
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Allow
          Rights: Self,GenericRead
          Inheritance: Children
        - Identity: TestUser001
          Type: Deny
          Rights: ListChildren

The "AccessRules" section creates AccessRules to allow or deny rights on the object to a given Principal (User, Group or Computer). The "Type" field can either be the value "Allow" or "Deny". The Rights field maps to the ActiveDirectoryRights Enumeration in C#. To assign multiple rights in a single rule, comma-separate the values in the field (ex: "Self, GenericRead"). Below is the list of rights supported :

ActiveDirectoryRights Enumeration

The valid values for the list of rights assignable in an access rule are based on the C# enumeration "ActiveDirectoryRights" in the System.DirectoryServices namespace. Below are the valid values at the time this document was created. For a more detailed view, see the Microsoft documentation site.

Right Description
AccessSystemSecurity The right to get or set the SACL in the object security descriptor.
CreateChild The right to create children of the object.
Delete The right to delete the object.
DeleteChild The right to delete children of the object.
DeleteTree The right to delete all children of this object, regardless of the permissions of the children.
ExtendedRight A customized control access right. For a list of possible extended rights, see the topic "Extended Rights" in the MSDN Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com. For more information about extended rights, see the topic "Control Access Rights" in the MSDN Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com.
GenericAll The right to create or delete children, delete a subtree, read and write properties, examine children and the object itself, add and remove the object from the directory, and read or write with an extended right.
GenericExecute The right to read permissions on, and list the contents of, a container object.
GenericRead The right to read permissions on this object, read all the properties on this object, list this object name when the parent container is listed, and list the contents of this object if it is a container.
GenericWrite The right to read permissions on this object, write all the properties on this object, and perform all validated writes to this object.
ListChildren The right to list children of this object. For more information about this right, see the topic "Controlling Object Visibility" in the MSDN Library http://msdn.microsoft.com/library.
ListObject The right to list a particular object. For more information about this right, see the topic "Controlling Object Visibility" in the MSDN Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com/library.
ReadControl The right to read data from the security descriptor of the object, not including the data in the SACL.
ReadProperty The right to read properties of the object.
Self The right to perform an operation that is controlled by a validated write access right.
Synchronize The right to use the object for synchronization. This right enables a thread to wait until that object is in the signaled state.
WriteDacl The right to modify the DACL in the object security descriptor.
WriteOwner The right to assume ownership of the object. The user must be an object trustee. The user cannot transfer the ownership to other users.
WriteProperty The right to write properties of the object.

Inheritance Enumeration

The valid values for the list of inheritance assignable to an access rule are based on the C# enumeration "ActiveDirectorySecurityInheritance" in the System.DirectoryServices namespace. Below are the valid values at the time this document was created. For a more detailed view, see the Microsoft documentation site.

In the table below, the column "Applies To" assumes an OrgUnit structure like :

A --> B --> C

  • C is a child of B
  • B is a child of A
Inheritance Description Applies To
None No Inheritance. A
All Inclues the object, all children, and all their descendants. A,B,C
Descendents Inclues all children and their descendants, but not the object itself. B,C
SelfAndChildren Inclues the object and all children, but not any descendants of the children. A,B
Children Includes all children, but not the object or any of the children's descendants. B

Action: AddRole or Remove Role, Object Type: All

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: SomeUser001
        Roles:
        - Name: AdOwner
          Principal: TestUser001
      Groups:
      - Identity: SomeGroup001
        Roles:
        - Name: AdReadWrite
          Principal: TestUser001
      OrganizationalUnits:
      - Identity: ou=Synapse,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        Roles:
        - Name: AdSomeOtherRole
          Principal: TestUser001
      Computers:
      - Identity: cn=MyComputer,ou=Computers,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        Roles:
        - Name: AdSomeOtherRole
          Principal: TestUser001

The "Roles" element defines the role "name" and to which principal (user or group) the role should be applied or removed from. See the Role Manager section above for details on how to define roles.

Action: Move, Object Type: All

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      Users:
      - Identity: cn=MoveMeUser,ou=Source,ou=MoveMe,ou=Synapse,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        MoveTo: ou=Destination,ou=MoveMe,ou=Synapse,dc=sandbox,dc=local
      Groups:
      - Identity: MoveMeGroup
        MoveTo: Destination
      OrganizationalUnits:
      - Identity: MoveMeOrgUnit
        MoveTo: Destination
      Computers:
      - Identity: MoveMeComputer
        MoveTo: Destination

The "MoveTo" element must be the identity of an Organizational Unit.

Action: Search, Object Type : Not Applicable

  Parameters:
    Type: Yaml
    Values:
      SearchRequests:
      - Filter: (objectClass=User)
        SearchBase: ou=Synapse,dc=sandbox,dc=local
        ReturnAttributes:
        - Name
        - objectGUID

The "Search" action doesn't apply to any single object, rather it takes a Search Filter and a SearchBase and returns the defined "ReturnAttributes" for each DirectoryEntry that matches the filter.

Important Notes

Modify : Clear Out A Field (~null~)

The action "Modify" only changes the fields you include in the plan. You are not required to set every single field you want to keep on a modify. However, this does beg the question, "How do I 'clear out' a field?". This is done by placing the value "~null~" in the field. For properties, if any of the possible values is "~null~", then it will clear out all values, ignoring any other values specififed in the plan.

Properties

Things to know about using properites :

  • Propeprties directly interact with the underlying DirectoryEntry object. You must provide the values in the format ActiveDirectory expects. (Example: The property "managedby" expects a DisginguishedName).
  • Any values that appear in a plan both as a class value and a property (ManagedBy, DisplayName, etc...) will take the value from the property. Class variables are processed first, followed by the properties.

ManagedBy Field vs Property

The "ManagedBy" field of Groups and Organizational Units can be any valid identity of a User or Group. The handler looks up the User or Group and provides the DistinguishedName to the "managedby" property.

The "managedBy" property must be the DistinguishedName of a User or Group. Properties directly manipulate the underlying DirectoryEntry and must match expected formats.

Appendix A: Object Properties

A more "exhaustive" list of available properties for each object type can be found at the links below :

Object Type Reference URLs
User https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/12037.active-directory-get-aduser-default-and-extended-properties.aspx
Group https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/12079.active-directory-get-adgroup-default-and-extended-properties.aspx
Org Unit https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/12089.active-directory-get-adorganizationalunit-default-and-extended-properties.aspx
Computer https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/12056.active-directory-get-adcomputer-default-and-extended-properties.aspx